There are more than 20 different manufacturers of pointe shoes, each with varying styles to accommodate different foot types. A good pointe shoe fitter will know the characteristics of the different shoes and be able to recommend shoes based on the dancer’s foot type. The peasant foot (toes are of even length) is the “ideal foot type” for weight distribution while on pointe. Dancers with a peasant foot will require a wider toe box. Dancers with a Grecian foot (second toe is longest) must find the width of toe box that feels most comfortable. A callus is an area of hard, thickened skin that can occur across the ball of the foot, on the heel, or on the outer side of the big toe. Typically considered a skin problem, calluses actually stem from a problem with the bone. Calluses have painful nerves and bursal sacs beneath them, causing symptoms ranging from sharp, shooting pain to dull, aching soreness. Other types of fractures include those as a result of direct trauma. Dropping a heavy object or twisting the foot or ankle can cause a fracture. It is recommended that you contact your podiatrist if you think you might have a foot or ankle fracture. Surgical intervention can also be undergone, including tendon release or lengthening, correction of single or multiple hammertoes or other foot deformities, bunion correction, metatarsal surgery, ankle surgery, joint implants, or complex foot surgeries to reduce risk factors. An Orthotic is a generic name for Orthotic Insoles/Shoe inserts or Orthoses used as a device that can be placed inside shoes to correct and restore the normal function of our feet. Improper foot biomechanics are responsible for many complaints such as heel pain, knee pain, and lower back pain. The Journal of American Podiatric Medicine May 1999, Sobel E, Levity S T,Caselli MA Division of Orthopedic Sciences,New York College of Podiatric Medicine Usually women are more affected with callus or corn problem than men. Blame it on your ill fitting shoes or high heels which put uneven pressure on foot. When an inappropriately placed seam in the shoe gets rubbed against your skin this causes extreme friction. Wearing shoes without socks may also result in calluses. Walking barefoot is fine, provided you do it in a limited manner; otherwise the skin gets thickened to protect itself. Incorrect walking motion or jogging can also cause calluses. In short it can be said that calluses commonly appear when the skin rubs frequently against some portion of the footwear or on the ground. A bunion is a bump on the outside of your big toe. Symptoms include pain, inflammation and redness, burning and sometimes numbness. Bunions may also cause calluses, sores or ingrown toenails. Bunions actually indicate a change in the bone structure of your foot, meaning your big toe is leaning toward your second toe. Bunions are typically inherited through genetics, but they are made worse by wearing tight shoes. Scholl Footcare - Corns/Callous/Bunions Bunion Protectors - Scholl Bunion Protectors reduce friction and pressure on painful bunions and relieve pain immediately. Dual layer pad provides optimum cushioning and pressure relief. Varicose veins refer to an enlargement of the veins and a loss in the ability of the vein to properly maintain blood flow back toward the heart. When this occurs blood can collect in the feet and legs. Superficial varicose veins may appear as unsightly cords or a small bunch of grapes, which usually appear on the tops of the feet, around the ankles and may extend upward to the knees and thighs. Deep varicose veins while usually not visible will result in chronic swelling of the feet, ankles and legs. This results in swelling, called edema. The skin can become inflamed, and is know as venous stasis dermatitis. Corns and calluses are areas of thick skin that result form excessive pressure or friction over a boney prominence. When these areas develop on the bottom of the foot they are called calluses. When they occur on the top of the toes they are called corns. They can also occur between the toes, the back of the heels and the top of the foot. The thickening of the skin is a normal body response to pressure or friction. Often times they are associated with a projection of bone called a bone spur. Not all areas of thickened skin are corns or calluses. Metatarsaigia is experienced as a shooting or sharp pain, accompanied by inflammation in the ball of the foot. Icing your foot several times a day and doing toe lifts and stretches will help. It is also wise to avoid sports. To prevent further problems try using arch supports and/or shock absorbing insoles. Bunions are formed when the sideways (transverse) arch falls. Then it pushes the sides of the joints outwards where they rub against the inside of the shoes. This builds up a callous. Give the exercises a try. But if you still have no improvement in your pain after a week or so , you should see your doctor. If your shoes are causing corns and calluses on your feet, it is time to get rid of those shoes and by a new pair. Rather than trying to fit yourself in a discount department store, it might be better to allow a professional shoe sales person to measure your foot to fit you with shoes that fit your feet properly. Today's modern living has produced new types of foot problems that require a different approach. Often that approach means lifestyle changes or modifications - at the very least reconsidering the footwear fashion statement. I know, ladies, that's asking a lot. But here are the facts ma'am, just the facts. As you can imagine, surgery may be a solution but it really doesn't do anything to prevent bunions from reappearing in the future. Also, surgeons like to work on bunions on both feet during the surgery, which makes it even more difficult to walk during the recovery process. Rheumatoid arthritis can cause significant pain and disability when if affects the foot. Dr Gibson discusses this entitity and some of the treatment options to help those with rheumatoid arthritis better understand their disease and options to help optimize their feet and keep them active.